There are many extremely dangerous and serious diseases in the world. The causative agents of some are so "good" that they were used to create fighting strains. An ideal example is anthrax. A deadly disease that can affect cats, dogs, and humans. As well as dozens of other species of wild and domestic animals. It is believed that birds and some predators in the wild are immune. In fairness, it should be noted that in laboratory conditions even hens managed to infect, so the pathogen is very "universal".
It is considered a "socially significant" disease due to the high danger to humans. Until relatively recently, it was believed that the disease was almost defeated, but this is not too true: reports of local cases come from all continents, with the exception of only Antarctica.
Under normal conditions, the chances of an animal getting anthrax are extremely small. But residents of rural regions should remember that from the Soviet era on, the territory of our country remained old burial grounds for agricultural animalsin which cattle that had fallen from an ulcer were disposed of at one time. When they are washed away by groundwater, anything is possible ...
The causative agent of infection is well known to microbiologists around the world - Bacillus anthracis. This bacterium can form spores that are extremely resistant to environmental conditions (such as heating, freezing, chemical disinfection or dehydration), which, as a rule, destroy other types of microorganisms within a short time. Simply put, in the aforementioned burial grounds, the spores of the pathogen will be safe and sound over the next several hundred years.
At any contact (inhalation, ingestion) with spores may cause infection. The most common source of infection in dogs and cats is eating meat or fish contaminated with spores of the pathogen, as well as direct contact with the secretions of sick animals (especially blood).
It is believed that, unlike humans, dogs and cats are highly resistant to aerosol infection. Again, unlike a person, his pets almost never suffer from a skin form of the disease.
A typical incubation period is 3-7 days (depending on the strain, physiological condition and other factors). As soon as bacteria infect an animal or human, they spread very quickly throughout the body with a blood stream. Microbes synthesize a powerful and very dangerous toxin that causes cell necrosis and tissue breakdown.infected with Bacillus anthracis.
This results in inflammation and damage to the organs, which quickly leads to their inferior work (heart, kidney and liver failure). A huge number of bacteria accumulate in the inflamed regional lymph nodes. All this is accompanied by a strong increase in overall body temperature, increased thirst and apathy. What else is characterized by anthrax in cats and dogs?
The septic form of infection is most severe, sometimes developing in lightning-fast type, when the death of an infected animal can occur within a few hours. Death usually occurs from respiratory failure. More often, a moderate, acute form is recorded when the animals show generalized symptoms of the disease and gradually recover, provided that they receive medical care.
It should be noted that the intestinal variety of anthrax in dogs and cats was practically not observed in practice, and therefore, with profuse diarrhea, the probability of infection with Bacillus anthracis is very small.
Important! The diagnosis of a combination of clinical signs is not made, since dozens of other infectious diseases have similar manifestations. Diagnosis involves microscopic examination of pathological material, which can only be carried out (!) In a well-equipped clinic with the strictest sterility.
An ulcer is treated quite simply - treatment involves prescribing penicillin group antibiotics. Oddly enough, but the formidable pathogen (fortunately) is perfectly treated even with old bicillin, to which many "modern" bacteria do not respond in principle.
Note!To this day, all farm animals are vaccinated against anthrax. Even in isolated cases of the disease, quarantine is declared, all diseased animals are isolated (but not killed, as spores are formed) and treated, all corpses must be disposed of exclusively by burning.
When anthrax is detected in animals (no difference, domestic or wild), this is immediately reported to the responsible persons. All rooms in which the sick animal was located are immediately subjected to thorough disinfection.
Since anthrax spores are resistant to many disinfectants, the issue is coordinated with an employee of the Ministry of Health regarding all appropriate procedures. For non-compliance with these requirements laid criminal liability.
People in contact with a sick cat or dog (especially the owners) are also isolated in the quarantine block of the infectious department of the local hospital. They should stay there until the theoretical period of the incubation period has passed.
Clothes and other low-value things that came into contact with a sick animal are most often burned (after processing with specific disinfectants, they will still become worthless).
Cases where anthrax in dogs or cats has been transmitted to humans are relatively rare, but likely. Fortunately, even with a pulmonary infection, the probability of infection is quite small. It is important to remember that in no case should open wounds be formed in a sick pet, as this is accompanied by the release of blood and the formation of spores! In other cases, a sick pet is relatively "safe" for humans. But this does not at all eliminate the need for all the measures described above.