Chinese shar pei has such a unique appearance that it is difficult to confuse with someone. "Dog in the fold" is one of the oldest breeds and certainly one of the most popular, despite its shortcomings.
History of breed origin
It is believed that the breed originated in the southern provinces of China more than 2 thousand years ago. The first mention of such dogs as favorites of emperors dates back to 220 BC. e. The further history of the breed could be called tragic, if not for a happy ending. The breed developed among all segments of the population with varying success. During periods of war and famine, they were forgotten about it, and then again taken for breeding.
Communists who came to power in the 20th century decided that pets were a luxury and taxed owners. Naturally, this caused tremendous damage to the breed. In the 50s. only a few Sharpei litters were known in Macau and Taiwan.
American breeders led by Herman Smith, who brought the first sharpei to the United States in 1965, began restoration of the breed. In 1971, Dogs magazine published an article about sharpei as a rare, extinct breed. She was seen by breeder Matgo Lowe, after which he turned to his American fellow dog owners for help and provided a plan for the revival of the breed. Over the next few years, enthusiasts searched for and bought the surviving dogs, and then transported them to Hong Kong. These few individuals became the founders of the breed. Unfortunately, breeders had to constantly resort to closely related crosses, which could not but affect the health of the breed.
In 1971, the American Kennel Association registered sharpei under the name "Chinese Fighting Dog." After 5 years, the breed was recognized by the International Cynological Federation. In 1979, the official name was decided to change to "Chinese sharpei."
Video review of the sharpei dog breed:
The appearance and standards of the breed sharpei
Shar Pei has a sturdy, compact physique of medium size. The folds, small bent ears and a very wide well-filled muzzle give the dog a unique look. Males are usually larger than females. Height - up to 50 cm; weight - up to 35 kg.
Sharpei puppies are similar to corrugated hippos, but as they grow, wrinkles are smoothed out, in adult dogs wrinkles on the body are minimized.
Head and face
The head of the sharpei is large enough, wrinkles on the face continue to form the breast. The muzzle is well-filled, the nose is large and wide with wide open nostrils. The tongue and gums are dark blue, only in duthy dogs, lavender is allowed. Jaws strong with the correct bite. Eyes are almond-shaped, brown. The ears are small, thick, triangular in shape, rounded at the ends. Set high, tips directed to the eyes, pressed to the skull.
The neck is set tight on the shoulders. The body folds can be at the withers, as well as at the base of the tail. There are also so-called "extreme" dogs, with a large number of folds in the body. All over the world they are considered tribal marriage, because they are characterized by very poor health. Unfortunately, in some countries, in Russia in particular, there are breeders who work for the sake of consumer demand and purposefully breed “extreme people”. The top line drops slightly just behind the withers and then rises to the lower back. The back is short. The chest is deep, wide. The tail is thick, round set high, bent over the back in a tight or loose ring. The limbs are strong, with good bones, straight and muscular.
Wool and colors
The coat is short, bristly, hard to the touch. The body does not fit snugly. Awn should be straight. The undercoat is missing.
The standard for sharpei is allowed only monophonic color and 14 color variations, which are divided into two types: basic and delute. Dogs with a basic color have a black pigment, which manifests itself in different intensities (in the form of a well-shaded mask on the face or only in a dark nose. Sharpei with a delute color are completely devoid of dark pigment, and therefore can not have a black mask, black nose or dark colored tongue.
- The black;
- Red delute;
- Cream Delute;
Sharpei wool types: brush and horse
Initially, sharpei had short coarse hair, but American breeders, when restoring the breed, added blood to other dogs (including the closest relative of the Chow Chow), as a result of which dogs with two types of coat began to be born:
- Horse wool is very short, up to 1.5 cm long;
- Brush wool from 1 to 2.5 cm.
The Chinese do not recognize brush dogs. In their opinion, sharpei can be exclusively horse-drawn. Despite this, the brush continues to be popular among some breeders.
In the standard, the character of sharpei is described in a few words: independent, calm, devoted to the family. Behind this stingy characteristic lies a full-fledged, very temperamental person.
The nature of the dog is largely determined by the purpose for which it was bred. Sharpei had many appointments. He worked as a hunter, watchman and shepherd. For outsiders, sharpei is independent, even arrogant, with a pronounced sense of self-esteem, and sometimes even aggressive. Actually, the dog doesn’t have warm feelings for strangers, it is cautious and distrustful. At home, sharpei allows himself to relax and be a real family member, affectionate, moderately playful, patient, attentive and faithful. These qualities make the dog a wonderful companion and a good watchman.
Sharpei needs a strong, confident owner who can cope with the complex nature of the dog through persistent and long-term education.
Sharpei strive for leadership in everything, they have a dominant character and an innate sense of territoriality. They are vigilant and intelligent, sometimes they can be aggressive towards their brothers. Independence and the ability to make decisions, traits characteristic of shepherds, are manifested to a greater or lesser extent in each dog.
Parenting and training
According to a study by Stanley Koren, Sharpei has average learning abilities. It is believed that the breed is more suitable for people with extensive experience in education and training. Shar Pei are dominant type dogs with a complex temperament; often they can neglect the opinion of the owner, who is not considered authority.
Sharpei should not be too soft and insecure, since he will quickly take a dominant position, and this is fraught with disobedience and other behavioral problems.
It is worth starting the puppy's education as early as possible, the baby is taught the rules of behavior in the house, on the street, they work out obedience commands. A special place should be taken by socialization. Sharpeis do not remember teams badly, but they quickly get bored of their performance for the same delicacy. The game form, variety, patience and perseverance will help to raise a good companion, comfortable and manageable dog.
Sharpei is suitable only for living in an apartment or a private house, absolutely not adapted for street maintenance. This is a companion dog, which always and everywhere should be next to a person. Often you can hear the complaints of the owners that sharpei smell strongly. The skin of healthy dogs has a light sweetish smell, only if the dog is poorly cared for or there are especially dermatological health problems, it may radiate not the most pleasant aroma. The hair of sharpei is very stiff, so the hairs that fell on the carpet or upholstered furniture often get stuck and pricked.
Sharpei do not like when stroking between the ears or on the back, and also when coming from behind. Most likely this is due to the limited lateral vision of the dog due to folds. For the same reason, sharpei do not always have a good relationship with children. It’s hard for a child to explain how to properly approach and how to stroke a puppy without causing him stress or fear, which can develop into aggression in the future.
Physical exercise needs moderate. Sharpei is quite enough for short walks and games near the house or in the park. But there are also very active specimens that will be happy to make up the company for a morning run. It is worth noting that in hot weather dogs are prone to overheating, and with the onset of cold weather clothing will be relevant: overalls, sweaters, boots and hats. Some sharpei refuse to go for a walk in the cold, some even have an allergy to cold, so winter walks need to be reduced to a minimum.
Short hair makes sharpei comfortable and easy to care for. The dog is combed out once a week with a special mitten or brush for shorthair breeds. They bathe this "miracle in a fold" not often, several times a year. To avoid possible skin irritation and get rid of excess moisture in the folds, use a special powder for dogs.
The dog needs to be accustomed to all hygiene procedures since childhood. With an adult sharpei who does not consider it necessary to brush his ears or teeth, it is practically impossible to cope.
You need to look into your ears a couple of times a week. If sulfur has accumulated, it is carefully removed with a cotton swab dipped in peroxide or a special lotion. Secret can accumulate in the corners of the eyes. It must be carefully removed with a cotton pad or soft cloth. The nails of many dogs successfully grind on their own, but sometimes owner intervention is necessary. The grown claws are cut off with special claws.
Sharpei teeth usually do not need care in their youth, but since modern dogs are more likely to live to adulthood, when dental problems become urgent, it would be better if the dog was accustomed to manipulating teeth from puppyhood. During the change of teeth, you can massage the gums, and then from time to time to brush your teeth with specialty paste.
Sharpei are very sensitive to food quality. It is very difficult to provide many of them with a balanced natural diet due to food intolerance, a weak stomach and allergies. Breeders recommend individually choosing a good ready-made super-premium food or holistic dog.
If you decide to give preference to natural nutrition, you need to approach the preparation of the menu correctly, you may need the help of a specialist. Adult sharpei should eat about 1 kg of food per day or 3.5% of its weight. Half of the diet should be low-fat meats, offal and fish. Eggs can be given 1-2 times a week. The other half is given to cereals (brown rice, buckwheat). To diversify and supplement the daily menu should be vegetables, herbs and sour-milk products.
Health: Disease and Life Expectancy
I consider Sharpeev to be very painful dogs, and there is some truth to this. Modern breeders are increasingly responsible for breeding issues and only healthy producers are selected, genetic tests for carriage are possible, but this has not always been the case. In addition, the breed has complex genetics, which entails a number of pathologies and makes dogs prone to many diseases.
Sharpei units boast excellent health. Most owners will have to deal with various ailments of their pet more than once.
- Like other brachycephalic breeds, Chinese shar pei can suffer from characteristic respiratory problems (stenosis of the nostrils, elongation of the soft palate, an increase in the folds of the laryngeal mucosa, hypoplastic trachea). Puppies under the age of 12 weeks are prone to the development of bronchial pneumonia.
- Dermatological problems: allergic dermatitis, sarcoptosis, bacterial skin infections, seborrhea, malaysia dermatitis, malignant and benign skin tumors. Mucinoma is an autoimmune disease in which mucin accumulates in the skin. Sharpei are prone to the formation of abscesses as a result of various penetrating wounds.
- Ophthalmic diseases are also characteristic of the breed. The most common problem is the inversion of the eyelids. Diagnosed during examination, without surgery, it can lead to corneal trauma and blindness. Retinal dysplasia, glaucoma, and prolapse of the third century also occur.
- The peculiarity of the structure of the ears, the complexity of their ventilation and cleaning often becomes predisposing factors for the development of otitis media of various etiologies.
- Panostitis and hypertrophic osteodystrophy are two diseases of the musculoskeletal system, which are often recorded during the period of active growth of puppies. Sharpeys are also diagnosed with carpal joint weakness, a dislocation of the patella, dysplasia of the hip and elbow joints, dissecting osteochondrosis.
- Hypothyroidism is quite widespread in the breed.
- Thick lip syndrome (excess tissue on the lower lip closes the teeth). Sometimes the problem does not prevent the dog from living, but in the case of constant trauma, surgical intervention is required.
- Chronic inflammation of the intestines;
- Allergy to plants, insect bites, food components, care products and more.
- Hereditary fever or joint swelling syndrome - a disease of the immune system that is characteristic exclusively for this breed.
Owners of sharpei should carefully monitor the health of dogs in order to notice in time the first symptoms of a developing ailment. In addition, sharpei need standard veterinary and preventive measures: examination, vaccination, treatment of external and internal parasites. The average life expectancy is 8-12 years.
The choice of puppy and the price of sharpei dogs
Even before buying a sharpei puppy, you should carefully familiarize yourself with the standard in order to know which appearance is a marriage, and which are only a minor drawback. Be sure to look at the photos of dogs on the Internet, and even better to visit the specialty show to have an idea of the appearance, types, sizes and characters of this diverse breed.
In advance, it is better to determine the floor, as well as the desired color of 14 possible. And of course, think about the purpose for which the dog is acquired: it will only be a pet or, in the future, should attend exhibitions and be a producer. The next stage is marketing research, calls to breeders, getting to know prices and pedigrees, choosing a parent or puppy from the litter.
Choosing a puppy, you need to carefully examine it. There are no dried crusts on the muzzle, the hair and skin are dry and clean, the eyes are wide enough, the eyelashes are looking forward, the tongue is blue or lavender, depending on the color. Pay attention to the behavior of the puppy. He should not be too timid or aggressive, a good kid is curious, friendly and playful. It is advisable to take puppies to a new home not earlier than 2 months.
The cost of a puppy in kennels varies in a wide range: from 25,000 rubles. and higher. The price is affected by the geography of the nursery, the merits of the parents, the appetites of the breeders and many other factors. The only option to buy a purebred dog cheaper (not taking into account exceptional cases) is to find a pet class puppy with minor flaws in appearance that automatically excludes it from breeding and significantly reduces the cost. This may be a non-continuous color, spotty or pink tongue, malocclusion, erect ears, etc. The breed is very common and many sell dogs "with hands."The price of puppies without documents rarely exceeds 15,000 rubles.
Photos of sharpei dogs of different ages and colors: