American shar pei is a dog revived by American cynologists on the basis of single individuals of an ancient Chinese fighting dog. Twice the breed teetered on the verge of extinction. For a long time they did not know about it outside of China. Today there are 3 varieties of sharpei.
Origin of breed
Shar Pei is one of the oldest breeds in China. It originated during the Han Dynasty and has about two millennia. Scientists suggest that the creation of the breed involved the ancient smooth-haired chow-chow and even more ancient mastiffs. The sharpei were originally bred in the vicinity of one of the largest cities in China, Guangzhou.
It was a folk dog, which was raised for hunting, protecting livestock and houses. But also sharpei were used for food, and hides - for making clothes. Later, dog fights in which sharpei took part in the Celestial Empire became popular.
During the Cultural Revolution of Mao, the ancient dogs of China were almost completely destroyed. Those individuals that were saved after total destruction were hidden in remote corners of the country. Their thoroughbred was in doubt. Therefore, the American shar pei has differences from a traditional Chinese dog.
Description of the breed American sharpei
The Chinese sharpei in the homeland is called "bone-mouth" - the bone mouth, and the American variety - "meat-mouth" (meat mouth). These names colorfully describe the differences between the two species. The American sharpei has a lot more massive skin folds on its face, and its head is more round. In addition, the size of the American sharpei is smaller, Chinese - higher.
The first standard was adopted by the American Kennel Sharpei Club in 1979. The breed standard approved by FCI in 1999 is the same for all three varieties of sharpei. According to him, sharpei must meet the following parameters:
- Head massive, big. The skull is roundish, slightly flattened from above. The frontal part is wide, sloping. Stop is moderate. The muzzle is wide, with no signs of narrowing to the nose. The back of the nose is straight, slight bulge at its base is allowed. The lobe is wide, fleshy with open wide nostrils. On the forehead, on the sides of the nose, cheeks voluminous folds passing into the chest.
- The lips are fleshy, the upper forms bryl. The palate, gums and tongue are pigmented in black and blue. Allowed pink spotting of the tongue on a dark background. In dogs with a weakened pigment of hair, the tongue is solid lilac.
- The jaws are strong, wide, with a perfect scissor bite. Puppies may have a lack of focus, which is corrected with age. The teeth are white, located perpendicular to the jaw.
- Eyes small, oval in shape, deep in the folds of the skin. The color of the iris is dark. A lighter color is acceptable in delute (weakly pigmented) colored dogs. Folds on the face should not interfere with vision, and hair should not injure the cornea.
- Ears small, triangular in shape, tightly pressed to the skull. The canvas of the ear is quite thick. The ears are high set and widely spaced. A slightly rounded tip of the ear is directed towards the eyes. The tip may have a slight bend outward, making it look like a rose petal.
- The neck is of medium length, with well-developed muscles, conical in shape. Goes smoothly to the withers and shoulders. Folds under the neck and at the base of the withers should not be too pronounced, full and plentiful.
- Back short, muscular, let's say a slight deflection between the withers and lower back. The loin is shortened, wide, somewhat convex.
- The chest is wide, the lower edge descends to the elbow joints. The bottom line rises smoothly from the chest to the back of the abdomen.
- Tail medium length, set high, thick at the base, tapering slightly towards the tip. The correct setting of the tail is folded into a tight or loose ring and pressed to either side of the croup. Suppose a saber-like set.
- Limbs strong, with a strong skeleton, medium length, parallel located. The hips are muscular. On the limbs, folding is unacceptable.
Size is average. Growth at the withers 44-51 cm. Weight 18-25 cm (female) and 25-30 kg (male).
Type of coat and possible colors
There are differences in the type of coat:
- brush - soft wool, 1 cm long. At the withers and tail it is longer - up to 2.5 cm;
- hors - the hair is stiff, similar to horse hair, shorter (0.5-1 cm).
“Brush” wool is more common in the American species and is not recognized by Chinese dog handlers, as it appeared as a result of the restoration of the breed, and close “relatives” of sharpei - chow-chow were used for introductory crosses.
Standard of the late XX century. Allows any solid color except white. Until recently, the standard did not take into account such rare colors as:
- isabella and isabella-do (highlighted, with no signs of black);
At the end of 2005, a new color register was adopted, which included the often found red and deer characteristic of ancient shar pei, which caused the dogs to be called "sand skin". But this name may also have described the sensation of touching a dog’s hard, prickly coat.
In addition, the following colors are highlighted:
- the black;
- red deer;
- red do;
- cream make;
- apricot make;
- make chocolate.
Delute-colored sharpei have a smoky or chocolate mask. And the isabella delute has a purple mask.
Character and temper
Some people think that sharpei can show aggressiveness, since it is a fighting dog. However, this is a misconception. In China, in order to get a good-natured dog to participate in battles, they were given a special herbal decoction. But even these tricks did not make sharpei aggressive. In the breed standard, approved in 1981, the character of sharpei is described as: "noble, intelligent, arrogant, alert."
Today Shar Pei is an excellent companion, as he is affectionate, kind, devoted, non-aggressive. He is orientally restrained in the manifestation of feelings, with a balanced nervous system. The dog is devoted not only to the family in which he lives, but also loves the house that will guard. The dog is not "talkative", but it will certainly warn the owners with a bark or growl about a person who has arrived or an uninvited guest at the door.
With a straight face, Sharpei takes caresses, skillfully hiding how pleasant and necessary they are to him. The dog subtly distinguishes the manifestations of the owner's emotions. Also, he certainly feels the intentions of strangers. If he decides that a stranger is a danger, he can react accordingly.
Sharpei love children and enjoy playing with them. But it is worth controlling their communication with the kids - a muscular, strong and able to move rapidly dog can inadvertently knock over and injure a child.
Sharpei poorly tolerate enclosed spaces. Due to the limited field of view, Sharpei nervously reacts to loud sounds, sudden movements, the unexpected appearance of an object in sight. Therefore, you should not try to pet the dog, not knowing how to do it correctly.
Training and education
American sharpei requires early socialization, since in his character is an incredulous attitude towards others. In addition, the dog seeks to dominate the "flock", and the owner must establish his authority as soon as possible and establish a trusting relationship with the pet.
Shar Pei can be stubborn and ignore command execution. But this is due to the dog’s ability to make independent decisions. Successful training requires perseverance, consistency and patience.
Sharpei, like many eastern fighting dogs, has a low pain threshold. Therefore, physical methods of influence should not be applied to him - he simply will not feel slaps. However, despite the apparent "thick-skinned", sharpei subtly feels an emotional mood, he has a good memory and sharp mind.
Praise, encouragement allow you to achieve the result that does not give punishment. Sharpei seeks to please his beloved master - this is an additional incentive that helps in training and education.
Sharpei loves to learn and is able to master not only the obligatory teams. In China, this breed is considered "medicinal", with a soft, soothing biofield. Therefore, older, sick people should be more in contact with cute dogs.
Shar Pei Care
Like any shorthair breed, shar pei does not require special care for the coat. It is naturally clean, the coat does not have an undercoat, therefore it does not require frequent combing. The dog molts 2 times a year. To remove dead hair, it is enough to clean the skin of a sharpei with a special mitten or brush.
It is enough to wash the pet 1 time in 3 months. This preserves the natural grease and microbiocinosis of healthy skin. Shampoo for shorthair dogs should be used for swimming. To prevent water and detergents from getting into your ears, they must be plugged with cotton swabs before the procedure. After bathing, the dog must be thoroughly dried with a towel, avoiding drafts.
After eating in the folds of the muzzle, food particles may get stuck, causing an unpleasant odor and skin irritation. Folds need to be constantly cleaned. To do this, have a special napkin next to the feeding place.
Small sharpei ears pressed tightly to the head require careful care and regular, at least 1-2 times a week, examination. It is necessary to care for the eyes and teeth of the pet. Especially carefully you need to follow the teeth of puppies. They may have a malocclusion and “tight” lips that interfere with the formation of the correct occlusion. A timely noticed anomaly is removed surgically.
Healthy sharpei skin folds do not require special care. If you find an unpleasant odor, diaper rash or dermatological problems, you need to contact a veterinarian.
Claws should be trimmed once a month, using special tools - claws. Long claws prevent movement. And in puppies - they violate the correct formation of the paws.
Mandatory routines include timely vaccination, regular preventive examinations, and treatment for cutaneous parasites and worms.
Intervention in sharpei genetics while reconstituting the breed added to the dog breed diseases. The following diseases can occur in American sharpei:
- skin - idiopathic mucinosis, atopic dermatitis, fungal infections, demodicosis, primary seborrhea, intertrigo;
- Gastrointestinal tract - congenital idiopathic megaesophagus, lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis;
- musculoskeletal system - hip dysplasia;
- visual apparatus - inversion of the eyelids, cataract, glaucoma, prolapse of the gland of the third century, primary dislocation of the lens;
- respiratory organs - primary dyskinesia of the ciliated epithelium;
- urinary system - renal amyloidosis.
Like other breeds, sharpei can show malignant and benign neoplasms.
Natural feeding of sharpei and ready-made production rations is allowed. If the owner opted for "drying", then you should purchase high-quality feed containing all the necessary components. In addition, the pet should receive enough water. You can alternate wet and dry feed, but the brand must be one.
When feeding sharpei with natural products, you should make a diet so that it contains no more than 9-12% fat and 24% protein. The diet should include:
- lean meat - bird, rabbit, beef;
- offal - no more than 40% of the daily volume of meat;
- boiled sea fish;
- porridge - buckwheat, rice, oatmeal;
- vegetables - depending on the season;
Do not give sharpei hard cheese, legumes, corn grits, potatoes, cabbage, fatty meat.
When cooking meat, the broth is poured, the same is done with fish - an excess of protein can cause allergies. Add a spoonful of vegetable oil to stewed or boiled vegetables, which improves coat and softens the skin. Completely banned from sweets, pastries, smoked meats. Serving size depends on the age and activity of the dog.
With a natural woman, it will be necessary to supplement the diet with food in the form of vitamin-mineral complexes. A veterinarian will help you choose the best option. Regardless of the type of feeding, adult pets are fed twice a day - usually in the morning and evening, and puppies 4-6 times.
Sharpei is well suited for maintenance in the apartment. The small size, lack of plentiful molting, accuracy make it an ideal “tenant” of a city apartment. In addition, the owners claim that sharpei do not seek to gnaw things and furniture. A berth equipped with a comfortable bed the size of an adult dog, a set of toys is all that a dog needs.
Shar Pei does not require long walks and intense loads, but he is not averse to taking longer walks and frolic. It should only be taken into account when choosing a walking time that sharpei is sensitive to overheating and exposure to direct sunlight. Therefore, it is better to skip the pet in the morning and in the evening. When the sun is not so active.
Sharpei do not like enclosed spaces. Ideally, the dog should have free walking in the courtyard of the country house.
Today sharpei is not such a rare breed. In our country there are many nurseries that are professionally engaged in raising sharpei puppies. The price varies widely. The pricing policy is influenced by pedigree, class, color. In Russia, the cost of puppies ranges from 17,000 to 35,000 rubles.
In Ukraine, prices are also high, especially for dogs of a rare blue color. The cost varies from 2500 to 22000 UAH.
Photo of an American sharpei
American sharpei video
In Moscow, puppies can be purchased in kennels:
- Sunrise Brice, //sunrise-breeze.ru/;
- "Shat Shune", //www.sharpei-land.com/puppies.htm;
- "Goldfish", //www.dogtalisman.ru/shar-pei.
American shar pei are good-natured, friendly doggies who easily capture the attention of all family members. They will become great friends for children, accompanying in fun activities, faithful companions for adults and wonderful companions for the elderly, brightening up their loneliness.